THE VATICAN HERESY

February 20th, 2014

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THE FALSE “GREAT PYRAMID CARTOUCHE SCANDAL”

February 20th, 2014

READ MY LIPS: The ‘two Germans’ DID NOT DAMAGE THE CARTOUCHE!

A ‘Capricorn Radio’ interview:
124 Robert Bauval & Dominique Gorlitz ‘Egypt Update’

Click here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBVDalR_ZMA

THE GREAT PYRAMID “CARTOUCHE SCANDAL”: The full (ongoing) story

February 18th, 2014

 

THE GREAT PYRAMID “CARTOUCHE SCANDAL”

 

The ‘scandal’ breaks out in the International Media

Early in November 2013, an Egyptian scholar, Ossama Karar, saw a Youtube on the Internet that totally shocked him: two Germans removing part of the ancient graffiti from one of the so-called Relief Chambers of the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops). He assumed, wrongly, that they were stealing the famous ‘cartouche’ that contains the name of king Khufu  –the only proof within the Pyramid, according to Egyptologists, that categorically connects the Great Pyramid to this king of the 4th Dynasty (c. 2500 BC). Ossama, a genuine lover of ancient Egypt and its monuments, immediately contacted the Egyptian media, and an article signed by him appeared on the 8th November 2013 in the Arab news Blog ‘VETO’ bearing the following title:

“VIDEO SHOWS CUTTING OF THE ‘CARTOUCHE’ OF KING KHUFU”

  • Osama Karrar , from the Archaeological Exhibitions Company, reported that the German archaeologist Dr Dominique Gorlitz infiltrated into the Great Pyramid and  cutting off part of the ‘cartouche’ of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, that is in the 5th Relief Chamber inside the pyramid. He pointed out that the German archaeologist had cut part of the cartridge of King Khufu with a chisel and put it inside his bag and then came out of the pyramid without being hampered by anyone. Karrar, in a special statement, said that that the German archaeologist tried to prove that the Pharaohs are not the builders of the pyramids but that it was built by the Jews, ‘ the children of Israel’ as found in a book called ‘lie of King Khufu’ which says that ‘The Egyptians carved the name of King Khufu lying on the pyramid and not Pharaoh Khufu himself.’ Karar also said ‘I informed of this subject matter to the Ministry of State for Antiquities so that they punish all those responsible for this negligence in the protection of monument.’

Within days of this article in VETO, the news of this ‘scandal’ spread like wildfire on the Internet and in the international media. Hundreds of Website and Blogs reported the news, as well as dozens of major newspapers and TV news around the world. The major Arab newspapers Al Ahram (English edition) ran a impassioned piece by Nevine el Aref, a long-time admirer of Zahi Hawass:

Playing with Egypt’s heritage:

  • Egypt’s ancient heritage has been put at risk by a pair of amateur German archaeologists,..The Great Pyramid of Khufu on the Giza Plateau is the oldest and largest pyramid in Egypt and the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. However, it seems that it has now been subjected to damage by two amateur German archaeologists from Dresden University, who according to a press release from the Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA) stole samples of a cartouche of Khufu from a small room on top of the king’s burial chamber inside the Great Pyramid. The ministry has imposed penalties and taken legal action against both archaeologists, Dominique Gorlitz and author Stefan Erdmann, as well as against Dresden University. It has also suspended scientific cooperation with the university as well as with the German laboratory that analysed the stolen items from Khufu’s Pyramid. Minister of State for Antiquities Mohamed Ibrahim told Al-Ahram Weekly that the ministry’s permanent committee had imposed a number of penalties against the Germans, their university and the tourism agency that had taken them on a tour around the plateau… Ibrahim has also sent the case to the prosecutor-general for investigation and notified Interpol to put the German archaeologists on Egypt’s airport watch list. Mohamed Abdel-Maksoud, head of the ancient Egyptian department at the ministry, said that members of the MSA who had helped the men had been identified, but that their names would not be announced until the completion of the investigations…“This occurrence has ruined the scientific reputation of all German archaeologists,” he said, asking the German government to take legal procedures against both amateur archaeologists….[AL AHRAM, 25 November 2013, by Nevine El-Aref]

The news of the ‘damaged’ and/or ‘stolen’ Cartouche of Khufu broke out in the European media on 29th November 2013. On that day it so happened that I was travelling from my home in Malaga to Milan with British Egyptologist David Rohl on our way to a conference in Trieste. We first heard the news at the conference the next day. When asked by someone in the audience what I thought of this news, I naturally said I was angered at this act of vandalism committed by the Germans. The Cartouche, even though part of graffiti that cover several of the Relief Chamber in the Great Pyramid, was of immense historical significance as it was the proof that the monument was built during the reign of Khufu. It was, in a sense, the Holy Grail of Egyptology, and stealing or even just damaging it was a heinous act that must be severely punished with the full force of international law. The vandalism by the two Germans was repugnant to all who loved Egypt and its ancient legacy.

On the 10th December 2013 I received an e-mail marked ‘very urgent message’ from my good friend in Cairo, the tourist guide and Egyptologist Hesham el Haddad. He had sent me an article from the newspaper Al Masry Al Youm. It was an interview by Zahi Hawass. When I saw the title, my eyes nearly popped out!

Germans working for an Egyptian Jew in Belgium stole Khufu cartouche in April 2013:

  • Dr Zahi Hawass, ex Minister of State for Antiquities, revealed that the robberies of King Khufu’s cartouche was done on behalf of, Robert Bauval, an Egyptian Jew working in Belgium, who has been trying by every means to prove that the pyramid is ‘a Jewish and not Egyptian product’. Hawass said in a special statements that Muhamed Ibrahim, the Minister of Antiquities has said in one of his media interviews that Khufu’s cartouche had was stolen in 2006, which is not true, as the inspecting agencies and the police have proved that the robbery took place in 2013, and the passports of the Germans showed that they entered Egypt last April. Hawass wondered ‘how the theft could have taken place in 2006 while the investigations were conducted with current officials and not those responsible for the pyramid area at the time? While the investigation result came to confirm my words, and all those responsible for the crime have been removed from the pyramid area after their involvement, one way or the other, has been proven’. He added: “I would like to make it clear that the foreign vandals are led by an Egyptian Jew living in Belgium, who had previously sent more than one person, who were all forbidden completely, and with whom I have had many battles, and he wrote a book before trying to prove that the pyramid was not Egyptian”. Hawass confirmed that “it was not permitted to enter the pyramid except through tourist companies in order to make control, which is the opposite of what is happing now; which allowed the samples to be smuggled”. He (Hawass) pointed that “the German laboratories attempted to demonstrate, through the red colour found in the rooms, that the pyramid dates to 15 thousand years (ago), which means that this was the time it was built, but the fact which is confirmed by both Egyptian and foreign scientists is that Khufu sent in his Year 27 a mission to bring the red colour from the Western Sahara, from Mast stone in which the cartouche was written, which means that it was the quarry from which the colour was brought who dates 15 thousand years ago and not the pyramid”. He (Hawass) stressed on “the need for those responsible for antiquities to look to what is happening of destruction and vandalism in some areas, not just remove accusations from officials or trying to deny responsibility for a great disaster like breaking into the pyramid and stealing Khufu’s cartouche, as the present minister does”.

5

 

I wasn’t sure if I should be shocked or amused at Hawass’s insane accusations! It was not the first time, of course, that he had accused me of plotting with ‘Jews’ to ‘undermine Egyptian antiquities’, but this was the epitome of all his bizarre accusations! My first reaction was that he had completely lost his mind! Although I generally ignore this kind of insane bursts from this man, this time I felt that in view of the importance of the Cartouche of Khufu as an historical artifact, I could not let such an accusation go unchecked. There was also the present intense political climate in Egypt to consider. By branding me a ‘Jew’ who masterminded the ‘stealing of the Khufu Cartouche’ might, in these in this already inflamed climate, induce a fanatic to take a pot shot at me. I decided, therefore, to find the two German culprits and demand that they make an official statement that not only I was never involved in their activities, but I also had never had any communication with them in the past! On the 11th December 2013 I placed a private message on Dominique Gorlitz Facebook, and waited. Two days later, on the 13th December, I received a reply. Gorlitz informed me that  he was in New York, and was totally shocked to hear about Hawass’s huge defamation against me, and also against himself and his colleague Stefan Erdman. But why was Gorlitz feeling defamed? Was it not the case that he and Erdman had in indeed damaged the Cartouche?

I put the question to him.

“This is a lie. We never even touched the Cartouche!” He replied. “We took just 2 milligrams of sample from another, much less significant graffiti next to the Cartouche.”

9

Place where the small sample of ochre paint was taken

on 17 April 2013 by Dominique Gorlitz

 

1401437_563343817089798_178728122_o

Dominique Gorlitz showing the place where sample was taken.

Note the ‘Cartouche’ to the far left of the photograph.

 

 

But how could I be sure that Gorlitz did not also take more samples from the Cartouche itself? Assuming Gorlitz was telling the truth, then this meant that Hawass had fabricated his story about the Cartouche being stolen. Could that be possible?!… Surely he would not go that far in his blind hatred toward my person? I decided to look into this matter later. Meanwhile I asked Gorlitz to send me a signed statement confirming that I did not know him or ever had spoken or corresponded with him until this day, and that I was in no way involved or connected with him and Stefan Erdman. Gorlitz replied that he would of course be more than glad to sent me such a statement. The next day, as agreed, Gorlitz e-mailed me a PDF document containing the signed statement. This I immediately sent a letter to the newspaper in Egypt Al Masry El Youm, and included with it Gorlitz’s statement as well as other documents that negated the accusations made against me by Hawass and which their newspaper had published without even bothering to check their veracity.

To the Chief Editor: Al Masry El Youm
Dear Sir, my name is Robert Bauval. I am an author, and I live in Spain.
In your issue of the 10th December 2013 you published an interview by Zahi Hawass in which he accused me of paying two Germans (Dominque Gorlitz and Stefan Erdmann) to steal the cartouche of king Cheops in the Great Pyramid of Giza. He furthermore stated that I am a Jew living in Belgium and that I have written a book that ascribed the construction of the Egyptian pyramids to the Jews. These are outrageous and false accusations. Let me state with the utmost of force that I was not in any way, shape or form involved in the stealing of the Khufu Cartouche by the two Germans. Furthermore I have never met these Germans. I also categorically deny that I am a Jew. I am a Christian Roman Catholic and so were both my parents and grandparents. Furthermore I have never stated in any of my books that it was the Jews who built the Egyptian pyramids. Indeed on the contrary: in my book ‘Breaking the Mirror of Heaven’ I totally condemn the erroneous theory that the Jews built the Egyptian pyramids.

Please find attached:
1) A signed letter by Dr. Dominique Gorlitz, one of the Germans who allegedly took the Khufu Cartouche.
2) My birth certificate.
3) My baptism certificate as a Christian.
4) A PDF of my book ‘Breaking the Mirror of Heaven’. Please refer to page 59, where I clearly state that the claim that the Jews built the Egyptian pyramids is a “nonsensical theory [which] has long been debunked, and no historian, let alone an Egyptologist, takes such things seriously at all.”

10

Statement from Dominique Gorlitz 15 December 2013

I then re-contacted Dominique Gorlitz to find out from him exactly what had happened on the 17th April 2013 when he and Stefan Erdmann had entered the Great Pyramid. He insisted again that they had not touched the Cartouche. The tiny sample of red ochre paint they had taken was from a secondary and rather unimportant graffiti located about 1.5 meter from the Cartouche. And they had photographic as well as video images to prove this. Gorlitz also confirmed that they entered the Great Pyramid with an official ‘private visitors’ permit that was obtained by their Egyptian travel agent from the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquties (MOA). He also explained that at first it was not their intention at all to take a sample from the graffiti. Their main intention was to take a small sample of black markings from the ceiling beams of the King’s Chamber. Gorlitz said that  only a very small amount, about 2 mg, was taken from this black markings which could hadly be described as ‘damaging’ the pyramid!

Dsc_0560aa

The sample of red ochre paint, about 2 mg.

 

I advised Gorlitz that he must explain all this, with pictorial evidence, to the Arab media. Meanwhile I asked him to send me copy of their ‘private visit’ permit for the Great Pyramid and also photos of the samples they took. I then forwarded this information to a journalist at the MENA (Middle East News Agency), Ms Sara Hazem. Gorlitz was then interview by Sara Harem on behalf of the MENA agency.

MENA (Sara Hazem): I would like to know the permit pass you got from the Ministry to enter the pyramid was only a visit permit to the place or not?

 D.G. (Dominique Gorlitz): We had an official visit permit from the Egyptian authorities to enter the Great Pyramid of Khufu on the 17th April 2013. We should explain first that Stefan Erdmann has been investigating the ancient Egyptian culture and especially the great pyramid for more than 20 years. He has already entered the pyramid three times with the permission of Dr. Zahi Hawass and has done several investigations. In 2007 Stefan discovered strange dark coloured areas on the granite beams of the ceiling of the King’s Chamber. He consulted many, many experts, but none were interested. In 2012 I met Stefan who convinced me to investigate this matter with him. So we applied for a private visitor permit for the 17th April 2013. We assumed that the permit covered all open areas within the Great Pyramid. This includes, we assumed, all the Chambers that were not locked. Please note that Stefan Erdmann already entered three times the relief chambers with visitor permissions in the last ten years during the tenure of Zahi Hawass. In the same way we got access to the relief chamber including two ladders. Please note that when we entered the Great Pyramid on that day it was not yet our intention to take any sample of red ochre paint from the graffiti in the so-called Relief Chambers.

 MENA: Did you break the law when you visited the place not mentioned in your pass and taking a sample from granite stone in the burial room?

 D.G./S.E. (Gorlitz and Erdmann):This is something that the Egyptian authorities must determine. It was never our intention to break the law or do any damage to the pyramid or, indeed, denigrate Egyptian history and culture. But we now realize that perhaps we should not have taken the very small sample (only a bit of crust scraped off, and not from granite itself). The same applies to the small sample of red ochre paint from the graffiti in the 5th Relief Chamber (see pics 1 and 2). We would like to make it absolutely clear that we did not touch the ‘Khufu Cartouche’. The small sample of red ochre paint was only a few milligrams, and can hardly be detected on the graffiti. We sincerely apologize, however, for any misunderstanding this has caused. We truly regret our action and would like to make full amends to the Egyptian authorities.

 MENA: Why you did not take ask for official procedures so you can take samples from Khufu pyramid?

D.G./S.E: Frankly as scientists it did not at the time occur to us that we would take a sample for the red ochre paint. The decision to do so was taken while inside the pyramid. The amount is really so small that we cannot understand why the Minister of Antiquities has considered it a ‘criminal act’ and that such a crisis between the Egyptian authorities and the German government has been generated. We have noted that Dr. Zahi Hawass may have been at the cause of such an over-reaction. On the 10th December 2013 he informed the Egyptian media that the ‘Jew’ Mr. Robert Bauval allegedly paid us to ‘steal’ the Khufu Cartouche. This is a total fabrication by Dr. Hawass. Therefore, I am not surprised that this story was then blown out of proportion!

MENA: Did you receive any replies from the Ministry after you sent letters?

D.G./S.E.: Unfortunately not yet. We still hope he will accept our apology and the amends we are happy to make, as stipulated in our letter to him.

 MENA: Do you have any mediator between you and the Ministry?

 D.G./S.E.: Not officially, although some people who appreciate the truth of our position, have helped us to pass our letters to the Minister of Antiquities. We hope that you and the MENA agency will also help us convey our sincere apologies to the Minister and also to all the Egyptian people for the misunderstanding that our action may have caused.

 MENA: The Ministry said that it sent a complaint to different bodies including the German embassy in Cairo and the Egyptian foreign Ministry will file a case against you.

 D.G./S.E (Stefan Erdman) : We really regret that he has done this. No good can come out of such unwarranted reaction. As we have explained, it was never our intention neither to cause any damage to the Great Pyramid nor embarrass the Egyptian culture. We only took few milligrams of very insignificant graffiti. We consider ourselves friends of Egypt and would never do anything to harm its cultural heritage. Our motive was purely scientific and nothing else.

 MENA: Did UNESCO communicate with you on this issue?

 DG: Not yet.

 MENA: How the German media tackle this issue and did it consider you a cause for tension between Egypt and Germany?

 S.E.: Unfortunately the German and world media reacted to the false information put forward by Dr. Hawass i.e. that a ‘Jew’ paid us to ‘steal’ the Khufu Cartouche. But this is a total lie and fabrication by Zahi Hawass. Since then with the kind help of Mr. Robert Bauval, we have been able to explain the true facts of this event to the public outside Egypt, and now the initial negative reaction towards us has shifted to a more understanding and conciliatory way to deal with this matter. We hope that you and MENA will also help us spread the truth to the Egyptian public. Most importantly, we categorically assert that none of the Egyptians implicated in this situation, especially the Antiquities inspectors and security personnel that were with us on the 17th April 2013 have not participated with or supported us when we took the samples. We hope that the Egyptian authorities will not impose a penalty against them. We thus urge the Egyptian authorities to drop any charges against any Egyptian regarding this matter.

 I also advised Gorlitz to send a personal letter to the Minister of Antiquities, Dr. Mohammad Ibrahim, which contained the same information given in the interview with the MENA. On the 27 December 2013 the following article appeared in the EGYPT INDEPENDENT newspaper:

  • German archaeologists will not be penalized for stealing King Cheops artifacts: Source MENA informed source from Ministry of State for Antiquities Affairs has revealed that the three German archaeologists, who were accused of stealing artifacts from Pyramids, had earlier obtained three official permissions from the Supreme Council for Antiquities addressed tourism company that organizes trips to King Cheops. The source added that the ministry has the right to take all legal measures but only against the company in case of violating standards, which means the german archaeologists will not be penalized. The first permission was made on 17 April to visit Tomb of the Birds at the Western Cemetery at Pyramids during the working hours from 10am to 12pm, the source said. The second permission was made on the same day to visit King Cheops after end of working hours from 6pm to 8pm.

On the 28 December 2013 the interview of Dominique Gorlitz to the MENA was published in the Al Ahram newspaper, under the title ‘German letter of apology to the Egyptian people regarding the samples taken from the pyramid of Cheops: we did not mean to offend anyone, and our goal was purely scientifically.’

Meanwhile I have been informed by a friend in Cairo that on the 21st December 2013 Zahi Hawass gave a talk at the Journalists Syndicate of Egypt. When asked why he made those accusations against me he replied straight-faced that he had “no proof that I was involved in the crime committed by the Germans”. On that same day he was interviewed by a the Swiss journalist, who also asked him why he said that I had paid the Germans to steal the cartouche of Khufu. Hawass replied  by e-mail: “I do not have any evidence that Bauval was involved in this crime.”

 

On the 17th December 2013, exactly a week after Hawass had made the accusations, the Minister of Antiquities, Dr. Mohammad Inbrahim, finally instructed a delegation of SCA (Supreme Council of Antiquities) inspectors to examine whether the Cartouche of Khufu had in fact been stolen or damaged. A well-placed contact I had in Cairo, Dr. Ossama Karar, obtained for me the official report from the SCA inspectors as well as several official photographs they had taken of their visit in the Relief Chambers of the Great Pyramid. The report, as well as the photographs confirmed that the Cartouche had not been stolen, although they did note some ‘damage’ –white spots where the red ochre paint had been scrapped off– on the top rim of the oval (the ‘cartouche’) that surrounding the hieroglyphic name of ‘Khufu’. An Egyptologist from the American University in Cairo, Dr. Monica Hanna, was then quick to accuse the ‘two Germans’ of causing thisdamage. Dr. Hanna sent the official photograph taken by the SCA Inspector on the 17th December 2013 where she had highlighted the damage/white spots by encircling them in green colour.

Monica Hanna1a

Green circles on the right rim of the Cartouche by Dr. Hanna

showing the ‘white spots’

where sampling/damage occured.

 

I immediately contacted Gorlitz who, again, insisted that they had not touched or damaged the Cartouche. ‘I am a scientist,’ Gorlitz was indignant. ‘I would never ever do such a thing!’

At this stage I did not know anymore who to believe. My gut feeling was that Gorlitz was telling the truth. But if so, how could the alleged damaged be explained? I had never been in the Relief Chambers myself, and so did not have any photographs that I could examine.

I suddenly recalled that my friend Dr. Robert Schoch of Boston University had visited the Relief Chambers twice: once in 2003 and another time in 2006. I immediately contact Schoch who very kindly sent me high-definition digital images of the Cartouche taken at those dates. It was beyond any shadow of a doubt that in the 2003 photograph the Cartouche was NOT damaged but in the 2006 photograph the exact same damage i.e. the white spots, was clearly there!  Gorlitz had been telling the truth.

KhufuCartouche_PhotoRobertSchoch

Dr. Schoch’s photo of 2003. No ‘white spots’ are seen on right rim of Cartouche

 

KhufuCartouche_PhotoRobertSchochDec2006 resized1

Dr. Schoch’s photo of 2006. The ‘white sSpots’ can be seen on the right rim of the Cartouche.

 

KhufuCartouche_PhotoRobertSchochDec2006 detail1

Dr. Schoch’s photo of 2006. Detail of Cartouche showing ‘white spots’ on right rim.

 

The question nonetheless remained of who had caused this damage to the Cartouche, and when? The photographs that Schoch had sent me proved beyond any doubt that the damage had occurred between 2003 and 2006. I knew that Hawass had authorized dozens of visitors, many of them students, regular tourists and even television crews, mostly from America and Europe, to visit the Relief Chambers. Any of these people could have caused the damage between 2003 and 2006. I decided to do a thorough research to see if we could not narrow down the dates. What I discovered was even more shocking!

I managed to find two TV documentaries, starring Zahi Hawass, in which he is seen in the topmost Relief Chamber examining the Cartouche. One documentary was made in 2005 and the other in 2010. It was clear that in the 2005 documentary the Cartouche was still not damaged but in the 2010 documentary the damage is there, exactly as it is seen in Schoch’s 2006 photograph and in the SCA inspector 2013 photograph. I was amazed that Hawass had not noticed the damage himself when he examined the Cartouche in 2010! The evidence was irrefutable: the Khufu Cartouche had been damaged between 2005 and 2006! Hawass was, after all, dubbed the most pre-eminent Egyptologist alive by the NGS and, in 2005/6 was not only the Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities but the Gerenal Director of the Giza Pyramids. I found it very hard to believe that someone of his professional caliber and high position would did not notice the damage on the Cartouche when he examined it in 2010. It should have jumped out, as it indeed did to everyone when compared with his examination in 2005.

2005: “Digging for the Truth, Season 1, Episode 1. Timed Position 18:15
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFoyrprN59k#t=18m43s

2010: “Chasing Mummies, Episode 2: Trapped. Timed Position 35:50
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVh5kMzPdNQ

I immediately contact Dr. Ossama Karar in Cairo to inform him of my findings. Dr. Karar asked me to send him the photographic and video evidence immediately, so that he could submit it to the Minister of Antiquities, Dr. Mohammad Ibrahim, and also to the Giza Security Police. I send him all that he had asked on the 16th February 2014.

BREAKING NEWS: KHUFU GRAFFITI AFFAIR

February 3rd, 2014
BREAKING NEWS. The Khufu Graffiti Affair. I have been asked by my Egyptian colleagues to make my position clear regarding this affair. Although I think I have already done so in several statements and radio interviews so far, I nonetheless have written this statement to be taken as my official position in this matter.


February 2014 My Position regarding the unauthorised taking of samples of red ochre paint from ancient graffiti from inside the so-called Campbell’s Chamber, and also from black marking on the underside of the ceiling beams of the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Giza.

On the 17 April 2013 two Germans, Dr. Dominique Gorlitz and Stefan Erdman, visited the Great Pyramid on a ‘private visitor permit’ granted to them by the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) from a two hours visit between 6 and 8 p.m. While in the Great Pyramid they climbed a ladder in the King’s Chamber and took samples of black markings from the underside of the ceiling beams. Ten small samples apparently totalling a few milligrammes were removed from the beams and put into small glass cups. They also took about 2 milligrammes of red ochre paint from an ancient graffiti on the south-west corner of the Campbell’s Chamber (5th Relief Chamber above the King’s Chamber) located about 1.5 meters to the west from the graffiti ‘Cartouche of Khufu’. The whole episode of their activity in the Great Pyramid was filmed on HD video.

In November 2013 the two Germans put up some of the video footage on Youtube. The Egyptian media, along with the international media, then accused them of taking the red ochre paint sample from the ‘Cartouche of Khufu’ in Campbell’s. On the 10th December 2013 Zahi Hawass, ex-Minister of Antiquities, accused me (Robert Bauval) in the newspaper Masry Al Youm of being an ‘Egyptian Jew who paid the Germans to steal the Cartouche of Khufu’… to prove that the ‘it is not the Egyptians who built the pyramids’ but the ‘Jews’.

Hawass’s accusation were totally false. I am not a Jew, I did not know the two Germans let alone pay them to ‘steal the cartouche of Khufu’. Furthermore I never claimed that the ‘Jews built the pyramids’. On the 13th December 2013 I managed to contact one of the Germans, Dr. Dominique Gorlitz. When I informed him of Hawass’s accusation, Dr. Gorlitz sent me a signed statement confirming that neither him nor his colleague Stefan Erdman had any communication with me before 13 December 2013 and that I had absolutely nothing to do with their work or their activity in the Great Pyramid. Indeed I have not met either Dr. Gorlitz or Erdman in person to this day. .

Dr. Gorlitz also confirmed to me that the sample of red ochre was not taken from the cartouche of Khufu graffiti but from another graffiti 1.5 meters west of it. From photographic evidence I have seen, I am convinced that the two Germans did not take the red ochre sample from the cartouche of Khufu.

My position is that the two Germans were wrong in taking samples, however small, from the Great Pyramid. But I stand by their claim that they did not take the sample from the cartouche of Khufu or did any damage to it. I am not sure what is the legal implications of their actions. But whatever legal action they could face, it cannot be for causing damage the cartouche of Khufu. The two Germans do not deny taking black marking samples from the underside of the beams of the King’s Chamber or a sample of red ochre paint from a graffiti in Campbell’s room. Any legal action that might be taken against them can only be for this. The fact that they had an official ‘private visitor permit’ to enter the Great Pyramid on the 17 April 2013 may not justify the taking of samples. But it is not evident who is ultimately responsible, since they were meant to be supervised by SCA inspectors and security police during this visit.

It is not up to me to ascertain what the legal position of the two Germans is with regards their actions. They know very well that I do not condone the unauthorised taking of samples from the Great Pyramid. But I also stand by the side of truth which is that the red ochre sample was NOT from the cartouche of Khufu but from another graffiti that is about 1.5 meters west of the cartouche. Does this absolve them or diminishes the severity of a possible legal action against them? It is not up to me to decide. It is a matter for the official legal authorities involved. I suppose that the case much depends on the conditions that are stipulated in the ‘private visitor permit’, since this, in my opinion, constitutes the ‘contract’ between the SCA and the travel agent through which the two Germans were able to have access to the various chambers in the Great Pyramid on 17 April 2013. The ultimate responsibility may perhaps rest with the SCA officials who granted the permit and of the SCA personnel which accompanied and supervised the visit of the Germans. As a general overview, my personal opinion is that no-one other than fully qualified and SCA/UNESCO approved expert archaeologists and scientists should be granted ‘private’ access to an ancient monument or temple, let alone the Great Pyramid. This unwise and unusual practice by the SCA of granting ‘private visit permits’ to travel agents bringing tourists into the Great Pyramid before and after official hours, which incidentally has been going on for several decades, was bound to lead to such unfortunate situation. I understand from the two Germans themselves that one of them, Stefan Erdmann, who to my knowledge is not an archaeologist or SCA approved scientist, has indeed been given such ‘private visit permits’ for the Great Pyramid and its Relief Chambers (and other ancient sites) by Dr. Zahi Hawass, sometimes even just verbally, on several occasions over the last 15 years. I also know of many others like Erdmann who have also have had the same ‘privilege’ granted to them by Zahi Hawass during his long tenure. It is now impossible to tell what possible damage or desecration has been done during such occasions.

Robert Bauval, 2 February 2014

SECRET TUNNELLING or OLD DEBRIS in the GREAT PYRAMID?

January 4th, 2014

In April 1996 Zahi Hawass, then Director-General of the Giza Pyramids, annouces that ‘secret tunnels’ exists at Giza (see article from Egyptian Gazette 14 April 1996 ‘PYRAMIDS, SECRE…T TUNNELS, PASSAGES).

In May 1996 Dr. Hawass granted a special Permit to the Schor Foundation (apparently a cover for the Edgar Cayce Foundation) to do exploration at the Giza Pyramids. Their secret mission was to find the ‘Hall of Records’/Secret Chambers. One of the Schor Expedition consultant, accoustic engineer Thomas Danley, reported on the 27th July 1997 on the ART BELL SHOW, Coast to Coast, that when he was Giza, he investigated the Relief Chambers in the Great Pyramid and reported that fresh excavation had taken place in the so-called Cavilglia Tunnel on the south wall of the lowest Relief Chamber (Davison’s Chamber).
In June 1996 the Antiquities Chairman, Dr. Abdel Halim nour El Deen, suddenly revoked the special licence of the Schor Foundations. According to Hawass “the Schor Foundation was not following the correct procedure, so I removed their permit”.  As for the debris/broken stones seen by Danley, Hawass, of course, denied that it had anything to do with recent tunnelling but rather claimed that the debris and rumble was from the 1836-7 tunnelling done by Italian explorer Caviglia and Col. Howard Vyse.

In early December 2013 Ossama Karar, and independent researcher from Cairo, demanded that the Ministry of Antiquities (MOA) re-open this case.
On the 17 December 2013 three inspectors from the MOA were sent to examine the Relief Chambers. They reported that the large amount of stone was probably from the placing of a metal staircase (by Hawass in 1996-7). I was told by Ossama Kadar that the police are not satisfied with this conclusion and may soon send another team to investigate.

The plot, as the saying goes, thicken….

See this report of 1997 title “The Great Pyramid Tunnel Mystery” by Randy Koppang:
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/piramides/esp_piramide_2.htmSee More

 

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HANKY PANKY AT THE GIZA PLATEAU 1994-1999

January 3rd, 2014

 From my book SECRET CHAMBER. Century Books 1999.

A fully updated edition will be published in 2014 by Inner Traditions. Vermont.

CHAPTER TEN

 

FAULTS AND CHASMS

 

“We sort of have 1996 set up for our little expedition to the Sphinx, with underground radar. 1996 was when Zahi (Hawass) said we’d be able to go. We’ll do more ground-scanning… and I figure that by 1998 we’ll hit something.”

Joseph Jahoda, February 1995 .

“…Certain people…acted as if the Giza Plateau, which contains the three Great Pyramids and the Sphinx, was their private property…” Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Bakr, President of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation, Sunday Times July 1993

 

STRANGE SYNCHRONICITIES

 

In the early part of 1994, a few weeks after the publication of my book

 

The Orion Mystery, I received a letter from my good friend, the author Colin Wilson. Wilson, who was researching for his next book, From Atlantis to the Sphinx, he asked my opinion on John Anthony West’s geological dating of the Sphinx to a period much older than accepted chronology, and was also curious to know more about the astronomical connection of the Giza Pyramids and the date of 10,500 BC which I had briefly touched upon in my book. Oddly, although I had heard of the John West controversy, I had not known much of the man or his work at Giza. My focus was on astronomy and the Pyramids, not the geology of the Sphinx. My linking the Giza Pyramids to a date of 10,500 BC through astronomical reasoning had, by necessity of its implications, thrown me into the arena of the ‘Age of the Sphinx’ debate that was raging in the United States and Egypt. In a way, it was very much Wilson’s letter which prompted me to turn my attention away from the Giza Pyramids for a while and take a closer look at the other, perhaps far more symbolic monument of the Giza Plateau: the Great Sphinx. Secret Chamber Chapter 10

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At about that same time Graham Hancock and I had agreed to co-author a book which was to be an investigation into the Hermetic Tradition through the ages, I was waiting for Graham to finish his book, Fingerprints of the Gods, before starting on this new project. I knew that Hancock had met John West in Egypt, and therefore asked him more information on West’s work and how relevant it was to his own search for evidence of a lost civilisation. Hancock informed me that he was devoting a whole chapter to John West and his work, and offered to send me a proof. In brief, John West, with the collaboration of Dr. Robert Schoch, a professor of Geology at Boston University, has studied the geological erosion of the Sphinx and the walls of the enclosure around it. He had concluded that they were not caused by sand and wind, as archaeologists maintained, but by rainwater. The depth of the grooves and fissures cut by the flowing water suggested a date of at least 2000 years earlier for the carving of the Sphinx. And on the basis of geological and climatic evidence, John West had even implied that the age of the Sphinx could be as old as 15,000 BC. As extraordinary as it seemed, here was the hard science of geology, backed by an eminent Bostonian academic, that threatened to topple whole tenets of Egyptian chronology and the origins of civilisation as taught in schools and universities. It implied, of course, that a much older and far more technologically advanced civilisation had touched Egypt in prehistoric times –an implication that inevitably brought the ‘Atlantis’ issue back into the limelight. Schoch and West’s conclusion sent a wave of anger and controversy around the academic world, and the Egyptological and archaeological ‘experts’ came out in droves to defend their coveted turf. One of the most outspoken critics of the West-Schoch hypothesis was none other than Mark Lehner, now a visiting professor at Chicago University and tagged a leading expert on the Sphinx. The other was Zahi Hawass, now a doctor in Egyptology with a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, (and now Director-General of the Giza Monuments for the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation).

The ‘Age of the Sphinx’ controversy started when John West, in the late 1970s, read in a book by R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz,

 

Sacred Science (1), that the body of the Sphinx appeared to be eroded by water. Schwaller had suggested that the Nile’s flood, which apparently might have reached the Sphinx upper levels in very remote antiquity, might have been responsible. Calculations, however, showed that flood water were unlikely to have been that high. When West took Robert Schoch to see the Sphinx in 1990, the latter quickly realised that the vertical fissures he saw were Secret Chamber Chapter 10

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not the result of flood water at all, but rainfall flowing over the body of the Sphinx and the walls of its enclosure. Schoch and West presented their hypothesis to the Geological Society in San Diego, and within a few days the news hit the press and a huge academic storm began to rumble, its echoes still felt to this day. The upshot was that the academics and ‘experts’ on the subject of Egyptian chronology and archaeology rejected outright any suggestion that the Sphinx could preceded dynastic Egypt, this in spite of the well-argued geological evidence presented by Schoch. Rather than review the thesis with a cool head, the Egyptologists in particular came out screaming and exhibiting to the media the hallmark of an orthodoxy and dogmatism that was long thought by the lay public to have been purged out of such scientific circles. The issue was not only whether Schoch and West were scientifically right, but whether they had the right to argue such ‘heretical’ matter being outsiders of the Egyptological profession. Dr. Peter Lecorvra of the Egyptian Department of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts put it this way:

“That’s ridiculous! Thousands of scholars working for hundreds of years have studied this topic and the chronology is pretty well worked out. There are no big surprises in store for us.” (2).

Dr. Lanny Bell, an Egyptologist at Chicago University, declared that although Egyptologists weren’t geologists, he nonetheless was ‘not willing to admit that we’ve lost 1500 years or more in our chronology (3). The Egyptological world was incensed. No words of encouragement or any suggestion of further investigations to confirm or rebuff the West-Schoch geological claim was offered by the establishment. As far as this particular profession was concerned the West-Schoch thesis was beneath serious consideration. The New York Times interviewed Mark Lehner who delivered this broadside:

“You don’t overthrow Egyptian history based on one phenomenon like a weathering profile. That is how pseudoscience is done, not real science!’” (4).

In February 1992 John West and Schoch decided to take their debate to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, where Mark Lehner led a group of sceptics to debate against the hypothesis. Present was Canadian author and journalist Paul William Roberts (5), who reported the event with his characteristic blend of humour and lucid

 

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view on human nature, calling it an ‘academic Armageddon’ (6). The debate, titled ‘How Old is the Sphinx ?’, attracted a huge audience and members of the media. On one side was Dr. Robert Schoch and Dr. Thomas Dobecki, a seismographer who had examined the Sphinx area with Schoch and West in 1991. On the other side was Dr. Mark Lehner and Dr. K. Lal Gauri, a geologist who had worked under Lehner during the ARCE Sphinx Project in 1982. John West was not allowed a place on the panel due to his lack of appropriate academic credentials.

The debate, which started on relatively amicable terms, degenerated into a heated debacle which ended up with shouts and accusations in the main lobby of the Hyatt Regency Hotel, the conference hall of which the panel debate had been organised. With Lehner snapping at West that he had no right to meddle in matters only PhDs were qualified to deal with (7). Meanwhile West was working with Robert Watt, a producing partner of Steven Spielberg, and Boris Said, a filmmaker from Los Angeles, on a documentary to present his thesis to the general public. There was, however, another aspect of the Schoch-West expedition at the Sphinx that had even more dramatic consequences if correct. The seismographer, Thomas Dobecki, had conducted acoustical tests all around the Sphinx with the help of West and Boris Said, and had pinpointed a large rectangular anomaly under the right paw of the Sphinx –just as Edgar Cayce had predicted (8). Dobecki described it as ‘a fairly large feature; it’s about nine metres by twelve metres in dimension, and less than five metres in depth.’ He pointed out that the regular shape of this rectangular ‘anomaly’ is inconsistent with naturally occurring cavities and, in his opinion, there was ‘some suggestion that this could be man-made’ (9). The news of this ran through the Edgar Cayce Foundation and its members world-wide like an electric current. But why was Dobecki looking for ‘anomalies and cavities’ with seismographs when the principal objective was to determine the age of the Sphinx by examination of the erosion of the limestone ? The seismographic data taken in the rear of the Sphinx’s terrace (the natural platform of limestone on which the Sphinx stands) proved useful for Dr. Robert Schoch in his geological argument for dating the Sphinx (10), but it was made clear by Dobecki himself that he was also looking for evidence of a ‘lost civilisation’ and, as well, evidence of a secret chamber under the paws of the Sphinx (11). It is perhaps interesting to note that much of the funds for the project were gathered from ARE members or supporters, including two individuals who not only had donated some funds, but were apparently appointed by the ARE to oversee their own interests at Giza. One

 

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individual we have already met: this was Joseph Jahoda, who had previously funded ARE projects at Giza and who was embroiled in the drilling fiasco of 1978. The other was the millionaire Dr. Joseph Schor, a life-long member of the ARE and a top executive with Forest Laboratories Inc. of New York (12). The latter was to be implicated in 1996 in a huge controversy over explorations at Giza which we shall review shortly.

Meanwhile John West and Boris Said managed to produce a full-length documentary which was commissioned eventually by one of America’s largest national channels, NBC. The documentary was titled ‘Mystery of the Sphinx’ and was broadcasted in November 1993 to a record 33 million viewers, and which was to earn West an Emmy Award for best research. The reaction by Egyptologists this time round was even more virulent. Dr. Hawass was particularly furious, and mounted a major attack in the press. One particular article, which appear in the Akhbar Al Yom newspaper in Egypt, was extremely scathing. With a banner title of ‘Stealing of Egypt’s Civilisation’, the newspaper accused John West and Robert Schoch of being ‘liars, science pretenders…adventurers playing with our antiquities and lifting their hands against our history.’ Dr. Zahi Hawass was quoted saying that he thought that this was ‘a sort of Zionist penetration’ (13) The undertone of the attacks, quite clearly, had become very political and plainly bordered on hysteria. There was also a gross distortion of the facts. The newspaper, for example, insinuated that West and Schoch (calling them ‘certain scientists’) had claimed that ‘someone had fallen from heaven to build the Pyramids and the Sphinx and created the civilisation of the Egyptians’ and that their ‘genuine owners are the founders of the elusive Atlantis civilisation…” (14). Neither Schoch nor West, of course, had ever said such a think, nor indeed believed it (15). Dr. Gaber Barakat, a professor at the Faculty of Science at Cairo University, accused the officials who had granted the Americans permits to work at the Sphinx, saying they were as much to blame for this controversy. Even Allah was evoked by Barakat, who exclaimed with indignation: ‘Thanks to Allah for not being involved in this crime which could have led to a horrible archaeological catastrophe!’. Dr. Hawass, in a curious display of blatant disloyalty to his superior, Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Bakr who was president of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation at the time of the Schoch-West expedition, passed the blame to him by saying that:

 

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“…A key official in the Antiquities Organisation accompanied the mission and entered the area. He helped them obtain a permit from the ex-chairman of the Antiquities Organisation to shoot a profit-making propaganda film…attributing all the great antiquities of Egypt to other people. This is a sort of Zionist plot!…(furthermore) they indeed shot the film and recorded an interview by the ex-chairman of the Antiquities Organisation who said he was pleased the Sphinx is 10,000 years old, as he did in a similar statement given to a foreign newspaper in support of this thesis.” (16)

Hawass then directed his attack on Edgar Cayce, telling the Akhbar Al Yom newspaper that:

“The film indicates an attempt by these pretenders to prove that the Sphinx dates back to 15,000 years…and consequently the Pyramids and the great antiquities were not of the ancient Egyptians but other people of higher culture and education who came from the continent of Atlantis after its destruction and placed beneath the Sphinx the records of their lost continent! It is evident that John West represents nothing but a continuation of this cultural invasion to Egypt’s civilisation. Before him was Edgar Cayce in Virginia who pretended that he had lived in Atlantis 15,000 years ago and then fled with the records to Egypt which he buried near the Sphinx…”

When reading these allegations regarding John West and Edgar Cayce, I was perplexed. My investigation on the Edgar Cayce Foundation’s connection with the Egyptian authorities at Giza back in 1978, when Dr. Hawass was chief inspector of the Giza Plateau during the SRI/ARE Sphinx Project, clearly indicated that not only Hawass had been very well aware of the motives of the Edgar Cayce Foundation who were searching for the Hall of Records, but indeed had himself inspected the drilling operations that they had carried out toward that objective. On three occasions the Edgar Cayce Foundation had been the principal financial sponsors of explorations at Giza, two at the Sphinx area and one at the Pyramids –a fact that Dr. Hawass would surely have been well-aware of. Furthermore there was the question of both Mark Lehner’s education in Cairo sponsored by the Edgar Cayce Foundation as well as their alleged sponsorship of Hawass’s entry at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Hawass, as we have said earlier, categorically denied this claim several times in public (17). But more perplexing was the

 

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occasional presence on site during the Schoch-West expedition of Joseph Jahoda, whom Hawass and Lehner knew quite well, and that of Dr. Joseph Schor, a well-known supporter of the Edgar Cayce Foundation. Both Lehner and Hawass had gone out of their way during 1978-1984 to accommodate the Edgar Cayce Foundation in their search for the Hall of Records at Giza and their attempt to vindicate the ‘Atlantis’ connection. Now, however, it was more than clear that they went out of their way to do just the opposite.

I was intrigued. I decided to get in touch with John West in the hope that he could enlighten me on this strange affair. West was temporarily residing in White Plains near New York at his sister’s home. As I was planning a trip to New York to see my US publishers in May 1994, West suggesting a meeting with him in White Plains. He also offered to arrange a meeting with Joseph Jahoda and Dr. Joseph Schor. At the time I was working with the author Adrian Gilbert, and we travelled together to New York. There we rented a car and drove to White Plains. The home of John West’s sister is set in a wonderful rural setting adjacent a forest with tall trees. They had prepared a barbeque and my first sight of John West was seeing him cook the most enormous T-bone steak. We took to each other immediately and have been friends ever since. West was at the time planing to resettle in the small town of Athens on the Hudson River, two hours train ride from New York City. We discussed, of course, the age of the Sphinx in terms of the geology and astronomy, but my main interest was to know more on the ARE’s involvement in Egypt and the role of Jahoda and Schor. West had much time for the Edgar Cayce readings and those who believed in them. He thought the ARE people were very nice but a little too much into weird ideas for his liking. He maintained a cordial and friendly relationship with them, but that was all. He was not too familiar with the events of 1978-1984, but confirmed that the ARE was indirectly supportive of his expedition in 1991-3, and that Jahoda and Schor seemed to act as their representatives in this matter (18). West informed me that Schor and Jahoda had arranged to meet us at the Edgar Cayce Foundation in Virginia Beach. Apparently the grandson of Edgar Cayce, Charles Thomas, would also be present at this meeting. Graham Hancock and his wife Santha had also decided to join us there. They were flying from Washington DC, while Adrian and I decided to drive along the coastal road.

 

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THE TWO JOES

 

The drive from New York to Virginia Beach takes about eight hours, with a dramatic crossing of Delaware Bay and the Chesapeake just before entering the county of Norfolk in Virginia. In the small beach resort of Virginia Beach we booked into a motel, then made our way to the Edgar Cayce Foundation. The complex consists mainly of two buildings: one is a wonderful colonial timber mansion that is, in fact, the refurbished ‘hospital’ in which Edgar Cayce had worked in back in the 1930s and which today serves as offices to the ARE executives as well as a massage and meditation centre; the other is a large, rectangular concrete structure –looking more like a blockhouse, really—which serves as library, bookshop and conference centre. The latter also has some classrooms where various subjects are taught to members and day visitors ranging from ESP, healing, meditation and dream interpretation to Gnostic studies and reincarnation. There was, we had to admit, nothing sinister about this place or the people that worked in it. Many were young and old volunteers who lived in the area. Adrian and I were greeted with a warm welcome by a group of young people who were assigned to show us around the centre. Graham and Santha were already there, browsing in the main library which is situated on the top floor (19).

We were told that our meeting with Charles Thomas, Jahoda and Schor would be over lunch, at the Ramada Ocean-Front Hotel across the road. There was an hour to kill, so we decided to familiarise ourselves with the organisation. We discovered that the Edgar Cayce Foundation has about 100,000 members world-wide and offices or representatives around the USA, South America, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan. It runs a press, the ARE Press, which issues several monthly or bimonthly publications, magazines, newsletters and also publishes it own books. The bookshop is well stocked with most books, as to be expected, by the ARE Press, but also a wide selection of associated titles, including books on ancient mysteries such as ours. The conference hall is of professional standard with a seating capacity for 500 people. The prize of the ARE is the large library that fills most of the top floor. It stocks a comprehensive range of books on esoteric subjects, mostly on Hermeticism, Gnosticism, mysticism, religious studies, astrology, Egyptology, and a panoply of New Age literature on healing, divination, channelling, reincarnation, ESP and so on. There is a staff of about thirty people, mostly volunteers on stipends, and the whole is managed by a board of executives headed

 

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by Charles Thomas Cayce. The latter, a graduate in Psychology, is a soft spoken man in his early fifties. He joined the ARE in 1970 and became its president in 1976. This was after his father, Hugh Lynn, had his first heart attack. Charles Thomas Cayce met us in the reception of the ARE. With him were two couples. They were introduced as Joe and Sherry Jahoda, and Joe and Laura Schor. Then Charles Thomas grinned at the two men and simply said: ‘the two Joes!’. The way their women were dressed and that ‘something’ that rich people have in their ways told us that what we saw here was, as the American says, ‘old money’.

Lunch at the Ramada was a pleasant and friendly affair. The two Joes were open about their activities at Giza. They way Jahoda referred to ‘Zahi’ made it clear that he was on very familiar terms with the Egyptian official. Jahoda explained that when Zahi had studied at the University of Pennsylvania, they used to see each other quite often and he had stayed here, at Virginia Beach, with the Jahodas when visiting the ARE. They referred to Mark Lehner affectionately as ‘young Mark’ and did not bear any grudge whatsoever about his changing camps nor, surprisingly, over Zahi Hawass’s media attack on Cayce and his beliefs. As far as they were concerned, it was all part of the unfolding ‘Atlantis’ story. Such tribulations were just temporary hitches which simply meant that the time was not yet right for the Hall of Records to be found. I was fascinated by these men’s confidence in the role they were playing and the way they approached it with such good nature. Charles Thomas kept silent and simply let the two Joes do the talking. What intrigued me most, however, was their utter certainty that they would soon get another opportunity to find what they were looking for at Giza, perhaps in a year or two. They now had to wait for the dust to settle a little, and then Zahi would arrange things for them. It was not so much a question of ‘if’, but more a question of ‘when’. As for us, they were intrigued at the astronomical dating we had derived for Giza. I offered to give them a little talk with slides back at the ARE complex. We then parted company with the understanding that although we, as authors, would remain impartial and reserved the right to report to our readers whatever we deemed fit, we nonetheless wished to maintain an open dialogue with the ARE and the two Joes on the matter of Giza and the Hall of Records.

Back in England I began to work on the manuscript for Keeper of Genesis. A few days later a letter arrived from Joe Schor dated 24 May 1994. It was addressed to ‘All the attendees of the

 

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joint meeting held at ARE Headquarters in Virginia Beach on May 21, 1994’. Schor commended my astronomical work and how, he felt, it ‘corroborated the Cayce records’. He then offered that he would like us ‘to work together to further delineate’ the civilisation Cayce had spoken of, and suggested we all kept in touch from now on. I sent a response through Charles Thomas Cayce thanking him for hosting the meeting, and stating that:

“As you can see, archaeo-astronomy is likely to add further weight to the belief that ‘something’ did happen around 10,500 BC at Giza which, if understood properly, could be of paramount importance to world culture. With the recent geological evidence of John West and now the archaeo-astronomical evidence to give it support, I feel that the search for whatever that ‘something’ was must go on.” (20)

A few weeks later I got a parcel from Douglas G. Richards from Virginia Beach. Richards had co-authored a book, Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited, with the son of Edgar Cayce, Edgar Evans, and the latter’s daughter, Gail Cayce Schwartzer. Enclosed was a copy of the book –which proved to be a real eye-opener regarding the involvement of the ARE at Giza—and also a two-page letter which basically tried to show how some of my conclusions supported the Cayce readings (21). Apparently they were publishing an update on their book and wanted to know if there was any further archaeo-astronomical material regarding 10,500 BC that could be useful to them. I did not hear from the ARE until a few months later, when they invited me to give a talk at their annual ‘Egypt’ conference at Virginia Beach scheduled for July 1995.

This time I decided take my family along –Michele, my wife, my daughter Candice and my son Jonathan. I gave a talk on the Orion-Giza correlation theory and also narrated the latest events at Giza, especially the now famous discovery of the ‘door’ inside the Great Pyramid by Rudolf Gantenbrink (which we will discuss in the next chapter). The audience –about 500 people—were enthusiastic and very receptive. The two Joes had come with their wives and we all went out for dinner in one of the excellent fish restaurants of Virginia Beach. This time I broached the issue of Dr. Hawass’s education at the University of Pennsylvania. Both Jahoda and Schor confirmed that Hawass was helped by the ARE in some way, but did not elaborate much further. They seemed as confident as ever that they were going to return at Giza and be allowed to conduct explorations for the Hall of Records. Sometime soon, they thought. I wished them luck but told them that I felt

 

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sceptical about their chances after the adverse media campaign that was waged in the Egyptian and American press. There also had been a huge controversy over the discovery of the ‘door’ in the Great Pyramid (22). No-one, not even the ARE with its good connections, I felt, would be allowed near the Sphinx or the Pyramids to look for hidden chambers. But the two Joes simply smiled. I figured it was best to let them have their delusions. There was no harm in this.

In February 1995, Jahoda had a telephone conversation with Graham Hancock in which he repeated his conviction that Hawass would soon arranged for them to resume their search at Giza. This time, however, Jahoda provided a rough schedule for an event:

“We sort of have 1996 set up for our little expedition to the Sphinx, with underground radar. 1996 was when Zahi (Hawass) said we’d be able to go. We’ll do more ground-scanning… and I figure that by 1998 we’ll hit something.” Joseph Jahoda, February 1995 (23).

In November 1995, just a few months after the ARE conference, I decided to go to Egypt with a group of friends. Graham and Santha also joined us there. We all stayed in the Movenpick Jolie-Ville hotel near the Pyramids. Everyone was in great spirits. In the early morning of our first night at the hotel we were rudely awoken by a strange rumble and shaking. It was an earthquake, and we heard later that it had caused some minor damage to the walls of the inner chamber of the Second Pyramid. Also a huge boulder had been dislodged from the Mokkatam Hills and had destroyed a small village, killing many of its inhabitants. Shaken by this experience, we all met in the breakfast room to plan the next few days ahead. There, to my surprise, were the two Joes. With them was also the filmmaker Boris Said, as well as a few other people I did not know. They turned out to be the crew for a TV film that Boris and the two Joes were planning to shoot. Schor informed me that they had seen the day before the president of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation, Dr. Abdel Halim Nureldin, and had lodged an application for a licence to conduct a radar search around the Sphinx and the Pyramids.

With the recommendations of Hawass, the two Joes felt that there chances were very good for getting this licence. Apparently the licence would be granted to the Florida State University with

 

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full financial backing from the Schor Foundation, which Joe Schor had recently registered in the US to cater for this type of research activity (24). Dr. Nureldin had promised them a reply by early 1996 –just as Jahoda had informed us back in February. It was then that we realised that these men meant business. We wondered how much of this latest development John West was aware. Back in England I called West to let him know of the encounter with the two Joes. He was surprised and dismayed for having been kept out of the picture. It was then that he revealed that he was in litigation with Boris Said over financial matters regarding their 1991-3 expedition and the NBC documentary. He felt now that Boris and the two Joes had decided to hijack his research and use his data for their own end. I had to agree with West that this seemed unfair. I told him that Graham and I would support him in this matter, and would try to make Jahoda and Schor see the good sense of joining forces with West and his own team. West then wrote a letter to Schor outlining such a proposal (25). Other than the impressive academic credentials of Dr. Robert Schoch and his affiliation with Boston University, West had also managed to get sponsorship from the prestigious Princeton University’s Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory, P.E.A.R. Laboratory for short, represented by Robert Jahn and Brenda Dunne, who were also executive members of the cutting-edge Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE) (26). He thus proposed that Schor’s planned expedition and his own could pool their academic resources as well as their experiences. In fact John West, through the academic front of Dr. Schoch at Boston University had already lodged a license application with Dr. Mohammad Bakr, then president of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation, as early as April 1993 (27). Dr. Bakr, however, lost his job in July that year, and so a new application was lodged by the Dean of Boston University, confirming the University’s full support and co-operation to the proposal made by Dr. Robert Schoch (28).

Joe Schor, however, was not moved. Joe Schor was well aware of West’s eagerness to resume his research at the Sphinx, this had been made plain to him by West on several occasions, and at least once by Graham, West and myself during a dinner in New York with Jahoda also present. Schor sent a reply to John West which amounted to a polite rejection of his proposals (29). West took this rejection badly and decided to vent his annoyance and complaints to the original investors of the 1991-3 Sphinx expedition, of which Joe Schor was also one (30). In this letter West did not mince his words regarding what he interpreted as a sort of ‘covert hostile takeover’. West’s

 

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words could have been a little more diplomatic, but then he, himself, would admit that this is by no means his greatest asset. Unfortunately a copy of West’s letter ended up with Schor. This was to be the beginning of open hostilities between West and Schor. Inevitably, Hancock and I were drawn into it. Our first approach was to remain neutral. This way, we felt, would not only allow us to monitor the situation from both sides but also we would retain our freedom of action vis-à-vis our readers and the general public who, at that stage, relied on us for updates on the events taking place at Giza. We thus informed both Joe Schor and John West of our position. Meanwhile the Society of Scientific Exploration invited Hancock, West and myself as speakers at a major symposium called ‘Return to the Source: Recovering Lost Knowledge and Ancient Wisdom’ to be held at the University of Delaware. Other researchers, too, were invited to speak, including authors Colin Wilson, Paul Devereux, Rand Flem-Ath and Paul William Roberts, and mathematician Jay Kappraff and geologist Dr. Robert Schoch. Little did we know that an open debacle would take place there between us and the Schor team. It was around that time, too, that Hancock, West and I also received an invitation to participate in the ARE 1996 Egypt conference. There was something rather puzzling about the title of this conference, which boldly proclaimed the ‘Opening of the Hall of Records: The Return of the Ancient Egyptians –10,500 BC to 1998 AD’. There was, too, a talk by Ahmad Fayed, an ARE guide who was well acquainted with Dr. Hawass on a personal level, that baffled us even more. Fayed’s talk was titled ‘Searching for the Hall of Records: Current excavations at Giza’. Who, we wondered, was currently searching for the Hall of Records and excavating at Giza ? The only team we knew that might be doing that was the Schor Foundation/Florida State University; but this team was still awaiting approval of its license from the Egyptian authorities. This strange certitude that such a search was going to happen before the July 1996 conference uncannily mimicked the same confidence expressed earlier to us by Joseph Johada, Dr. Schor’s right-hand man in such matters. There could be little doubt that both statements were either connected or were based on the same source. Frankly, at this point in time, neither Hancock nor I believed that any team, let alone West because of the previous adverse public attacks from the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation or, worse, Schor and Jahoda with their obvious Edgar Cayce affiliations, would be permitted to conduct explorations at Giza, especially if this involved a search for the vexed Hall of Records. We were soon in for a big surprise.

ZAHI HAWASS UNMASKED AS A DANGEROUS LIAR

December 16th, 2013

BREAKING NEWS: Egypt. Has Zahi Hawass gone totally insane??
There is a Facebook in Arabic, called Asar Masr (Egypt’s Antiquities) where an article allegedly by Hawass accused me of being a ‘Belgian Jew’ who is behind the recent scandal caused by two Germans who chipped off the Cartouche of King Khufu in the Great Pyramid!!!

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=559394457472371&set=a.123406331071188.25371.123398014405353&type=3&theater
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The translation in English of the totally irresponsible interview of Zahi Hawass and his insane (actually hilarious!) accusations against me.

 

(Germans working for an Egyptian Jew in Belgium stole Khufu cartouche in April 2013)
Dr Zahi Hawass, ex Minister of State for Antiquities, revealed that the robberies of King Khufu’s cartouche was done on behalf of, Robert Bauval, an Egyptian Jew working in Belgium, who has been trying by every means to prove that the pyramid is ‘a Jewish and not Egyptian product’.
Hawass said in a special statements that Muhamed Ibrahim, the Minister of Antiquities has said in one of his media interviews that Khufu’s cartouche had was stolen in 2006, which is not true, as the inspecting agencies and the police have proved that the robbery took place in 2013, and the the passports of the Germans showed that they entered Egypt last April.
Hawass wondered ‘how the theft could have taken place in 2006 while the investigations were conducted with current officials and not those responsible for the pyramid area at the time? While the investigation result came to confirm my words, and all those responsible for the have been removed from the pyramid area after their involvement, one way or the other, has been proven’.
He added: “I would like to make it clear that the foreign vandals are led by an Egyptian Jew living in Belgium, who had previously sent more than one person, who were all forbidden completely, and with whom I have had many battles, and he wrote a book before trying to prove that the pyramid was not Egyptian”. Hawass confirmed that “it was not permitted to enter the pyramid except through tourist companies in order to make control, which is the opposite of what is happing now; which allowed the samples to be smuggled”.
He (Hawass) pointed that “the German laboratories attempted to demonstrate, through the red colour found in the rooms, that the pyramid dates to 15 thousand years (ago), which means that this was the time it was built, but the fact which is confirmed by both Egyptian and foreign scientists is that Khufu sent in his Year 27 a mission to bring the red colour from the Western Sahara, from Mast stone in which the cartouche was written, which means that it was the quarry from which the colour was brought who dates 15 thousand years ago and not the pyramid”.
He (Hawass) stressed on “the need for those responsible for antiquities to look to what is happening of destruction and vandalism in some areas, not just remove accusations from officials or trying to deny responsibility for a great disaster like breaking into the pyramid and stealing Khufu’s cartouche, as the present minister does”.
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[English translation from the Arabic Text]
As agreed with you, here below is my reply, with attached documents.

 

TO THE CHIEF EDITOR
Dear Sir,

My name is Robert Bauval. I am an author, and I live in Spain.
In your issue of the 10th December 2013 you published an interview by Zahi Hawass in which he accused me of paying two Germans (Dominque Gorlitz and Stefan Erdmann) to steal the cartouche of king Cheops in the Great Pyramid of Giza. He furthermore stated that I am a Jew living in Belgium and that I have written a book that ascribe the construction of the Egyptian pyramids to the Jews. These are outrageous and false accusations.
Let me state with the utmost of force that I was not in any way shape or form involved in the stealing of the Khufu Cartouche by the two Germans. Furthermore I have never met these Germans.
I also categorically deny that I am a Jew. I am a Christian Roman Catholic and so were both my parents and grandparents. Furthermore I have never stated in any of my books that it was the Jews who built the Egyptian pyramids. Indeed on the contrary: in my book ‘Breaking the Mirror of Heaven’ I totally condemn the erroneous theory that the Jews built the Egyptian pyramids.

 

Please find attached:
1) A signed letter by Dr. Dominique Gorlitz, one of the Germans who allegedly took the Khufu Cartouche,
2) My birth certificate.
3) My baptism certificate as a Christian.
4) A PDF of my book ‘Breaking the Mirror of Heaven’. Please refer to page 59, where I clearly state that the claim that the Jews built the Egyptian pyramids is a “nonsensical theory [which] has long been debunked, and no historian, let alone an Egyptologist, takes such things seriously at all.”

 

Yours Sincerely,

Robert G. Bauval

dominique stat 1

THE MADNESS OF ‘KING’ ZAHI HAWASS

December 13th, 2013

DEAR FRIENDS AND SUPPORTERS AROUND THE WORLD.
Join me in a world campaign against the vicious and outrageous lies made by ex-Minister of Antiquities Zahi Hawass and published in the newspaper ‘Al Masry Al Yom’. [scroll down t see English translation of the article “Germans working for an Egyptian Jew in Belgium stole Khufu cartouche in April 2013). Dr Zahi Hawass, ex Minister of State for Antiquities, revealed that the robberies of King Khufu’s cartouche was done on behalf of, Robert Bauval, an Egyptian Jew working in Belgium”]

Please post your complaints/support/commentary on their ‘facebook wall’ here: https://www.facebook.com/AlMasryAlYoumEE

Also to Minister of Antiquities, Dr. Mohammad Ibrahim: ministry.antiquities@msa-egypt.org

 

The translation in English of the Arabic text:

(Germans working for an Egyptian Jew in Belgium stole Khufu cartouche in April 2013)
Dr Zahi Hawass, ex Minister of State for Antiquities, revealed that the robberies of King Khufu’s cartouche was done on behalf of, Robert Bauval, an Egyptian Jew working in Belgium, who has been trying by every means to prove that the pyramid is ‘a Jewish and not Egyptian product’.

 
Hawass said in a special statements that Muhamed Ibrahim, the Minister of Antiquities has said in one of his media interviews that Khufu’s cartouche had was stolen in 2006, which is not true, as the inspecting agencies and the police have proved that the robbery took place in 2013, and the the passports of the Germans showed that they entered Egypt last April.

 
Hawass wondered ‘how the theft could have taken place in 2006 while the investigations were conducted with current officials and not those responsible for the pyramid area at the time? While the investigation result came to confirm my words, and all those responsible for the have been removed from the pyramid area after their involvement, one way or the other, has been proven’.

 
He added: “I would like to make it clear that the foreign vandals are led by an Egyptian Jew living in Belgium, who had previously sent more than one person, who were all forbidden completely, and with whom I have had many battles, and he wrote a book before trying to prove that the pyramid was not Egyptian”. Hawass confirmed that “it was not permitted to enter the pyramid except through tourist companies in order to make control, which is the opposite of what is happing now; which allowed the samples to be smuggled”.

 
He (Hawass) pointed that “the German laboratories attempted to demonstrate, through the red colour found in the rooms, that the pyramid dates to 15 thousand years (ago), which means that this was the time it was built, but the fact which is confirmed by both Egyptian and foreign scientists is that Khufu sent in his Year 27 a mission to bring the red colour from the Western Sahara, from Mast stone in which the cartouche was written, which means that it was the quarry from which the colour was brought who dates 15 thousand years ago and not the pyramid”.

 
He (Hawass) stressed on “the need for those responsible for antiquities to look to what is happening of destruction and vandalism in some areas, not just remove accusations from officials or trying to deny responsibility for a great disaster like breaking into the pyramid and stealing Khufu’s cartouche, as the present minister does”.

St. FRANCIS of Assisi or St. FRANCIS Javier? New Pope takes the name of Francis I

March 14th, 2013

Pope FRANCIS I. Everyone immediately assumed, probably wrongly, that the new Pope chose this name because of Francis of Assisi being himself humble, loved animals etc… But it has been pointed out that the new Pope is also a Jesuit, and the first ever Jesuit to become Pope. So why would he choose a name from the Franciscan Order when he is himself from the Jesuit Order? The answer may be that one of the co-founders of the Jesuit Order was called Francis (apparently canonized as St. Francis as well in 1622). This was San Francesco Javier, called Severino in Italy. He was one of the seven original ‘soldiers’ priests who, along with Ignazio de Loyola, founded the Society of Jesus/Jesuit Order in 1534.

ALEXANDRIA: The Solar City of Alexander the Great

February 19th, 2013

By Robert Bauval © 2013

Before the coming of Alexander the Great in 331 BCE, Egyptian had suffered a brutal and humiliating century of occupation by the Persians who desecrated and destroyed many of its temples and even whole cities, leaving the country badly scarred, physically and mentally. Not surprisingly then, when Alexander defeated the Persian army of Darius III at Issus in Syria, and afterwards marched triumphantly into the ancient land of the Nile, the twenty-four year old Macedonian hero was treated like a god, a returning pharaoh come to liberate Egypt. The priests of Egypt already knew that since his childhood this young and valiant prince had entertained the belief that his true ‘father’ was the solar god of Egypt, Amun, whose oracle was at the oasis of Siwa. This belief was put into Alexander’s young mind by his highly strung and mystical mother, Olympias, who had once been a priestess at the Oracle of Zeus at Dodona twinned with the oracle of Amun at Siwa. Endowed with a deep mystical nature, Olympias believed she was destined to give birth to a divine male child who would conquer and unite the known world like Dionysos, the handsome and heroic son of Zeus and the mortal Semele. To the Greeks, Zeus was akin to Amun, and even said to be the same. When Olympias married Philip II of Macedonia in 357 BC,  she claimed that on her wedding night she had been visited by the god Zeus-Amun and was made pregnant by him.

Alexander’s dream was not just to unite the known world but also to rule it from city dedicated to wisdom and learning, an intellectual haven where scholars would share their knowledge and discoveries to enlighten the world. It is probable that such an idea had been drummed into him by Aristotle, who had tutored Alexander for many years. Aristotle had written his famous tract on Politika, The Politics, in which he examines various systems of constitutions and the Ideal State, and which he surely must have discussed with Alexander. Was the future Alexandria to be that ‘Ideal State’? It certainly became the universal center of learning for several centuries, as well as the place where its inhabitants saw themselves as ‘cosmopolitans’, citizens of the World,  and where all religions and races could cohabited. The term ‘cosmopolitan’ probably comes from the statement of Diogenes of Sinope (c. 415 BC) who, when asked to which state he belonged, answered: “I am a citizen of the World’ –Kosmopolites. Alexandria was probably the nearest thing to a ‘Cosmopolitan Utopia’ the world has ever known.

Tradition has it that it was the architect Dinoclates of Rhodes who, under the orders of Alexander, designed the city plan of Alexandria. The layout of the new city, however, shows an Egyptian influence that, for lack of better words, can be termed ‘solar’, a sort of ‘City of the Sun’ to emulate perhaps in some ways Heliopolis, the quintessential ‘City of the Sun’ of the ancient world, or the great sun-temples of Amun-Re at Karnak and Luxor [fn: A chapel dedicated to Alexander the Great was built within the holy of holies of the Luxor temple]. Take for example the two principal arteries of the ancient city, the Canopus Way and the Soma. The Canopus Way ran west to east and headed towards the town of Canopus some 20 kilometers from Alexandria, and the Soma ran south to north, crossing the Canopus Way to form a huge cross at the center of which was the Agora, the traditional square or piazza in the heart found in most ancient Greek cities. The Canopus Way was probably named after Kanopos, the legendary Homerian navigator who piloted the fleet of Menelaus in the Iliad. According to a Homeric myth, the town of Canopus (modern Abukir) in Egypt was founded by Menelaus, who named it after the pilot of his ship who died on its shore. Homer says that Menelaus built a shrine to his memory there, around which the town was later developed. A temple dedicated to Osiris was later built at Canopus by Ptolemy III.  Herodotus, who wrote a century or so before the foundation of Alexandria, claimed that there was a temple dedicated to Heracles in that region. According to some Egyptologists, however, the name ‘Canopus’ was because the road led to a temple where pilgrim deposited ‘canopic jars’ used in funerary rituals. Alexander is also well known to have claimed descent from Dionysos and Herakles, both of whom were associated with the Egyptian god Osiris by the historian and author Herodotus whose celebrated books The Histories Alexander had diligently read. So at least since the time of Herodotus it was known that a temple dedicated to Herakles-Osiris at a town called Herakleon near modern day Abukir. The future Canopus Way axis, when extended towards the eastern horizon would have passed near Herakleion, something that Alexander would certainly have been made aware of. Herakleion was later submerged after a terrible earthquake but has been rediscovered by recently by French marine archaeologists.

At both ends of the Canopus Way were gates leading in and out of the city of Alexandria. The west gate was called the “Gate of the Moon” (Selene) while the east gate was the “Gate of the Sun” (Helios). Although historians have assumed that the layout plan of the city was based on the classical Greek system of grids, it has been pointed out that much older Egyptian cities such as Akhetaten, the ‘solar’ city of Akhenaten at Tell el Amarna, also had a gridded layout. It must be remembered that Alexander had been proclaimed pharaoh of Egypt, a role that associated him to the sun god of Egypt, Amun-Re. As pharaoh, Alexander was regarded as the reincarnation of Horus, the solar falcon god or, to put it in other words, a solar Horus-king. The divine birth of such Horus-king were associated to the first appearance at dawn of the star Sothis (our modern Sirius) which in antiquity took place near the time of the summer solstice. At the epoch of Alexander this cosmic event took place at the location of Alexandria on the 20 July on the Julian calendar, and it cannot be a coincidence that many classical authors fixed the date of Alexander’s birth, now himself a ‘solar’ king of Egypt, also on that same date. It would seem unlikely, knowing the mystical aspect of Alexander’s birth and his coronation as a divine Horus-king of Egypt, and also knowing that main axis of cities and major temples in Egypt were often aligned to sunrise on some important day, it would seem highly unlikely and quite atypical of the mental state of its designers that the Canopus Way, the main axis of which was probably decided by Alexander himself, would not have a similar solar alignment fixed on an important day associated to Alexander’s solar divinity.

The alignment of the Canopus Way has been determined to be some 24 degrees north of east. [This was confirmed in the 1860s by the eminent Egyptian astronomer Mahmoud El Falaki Bey, who carried out excavations and showed that there had been eleven main streets running parallel along the width of the ancient city, and seven others also running parallel but at right angles to the other eleven. The two principal arteries were the Canopus Way running the length of the city, and the Soma running the width of the city. Several trial pits and trenches that were dug out by Mahmoud Bey established that the Canopus Way was some 2300 meters long and that it was oriented to 24º north of east, within + – 30 minutes accuracy]. This specific alignment does not appear to be accidental.  The sun’s rising points on the eastern horizon as observed from Alexandria fluctuate between 28º south of east (winter solstice) and 28º degrees north of east (summer solstice), with the mid-point, due east, falling on the spring and autumn equinoxes. In Plutarch’s Life of Alexander the 1st century the author tells us that,

 

“Alexander was born the 6th of Hecatombaeon, which month the Macedonians call Lous, the same day that the temple of Diana at Ephesus was burnt…”

Hecatombaeon was the first month in the Greek year, and it started on the first new moon immediately following the summer solstice. It has been calculated that in 356 BCE the year of Alexander’s birth, the new moon after the summer solstice was on 14 July (Julian), thus Alexander’s birth fell six days later on 20 July. At this time the sun also was in the sign of Leo, which may also explain the leonine attributes that ancient writers associated with Alexander. As we have said earlier, Alexander himself probably determined the alignment of the central axis of the future city of Alexandria, later to be known as the Canopus Way, and it is therefore very significant to note that this axis, which is at about 24 degrees north of east, targeted the rising sun on the 20 July Julian.

 [Postscript: In 2004 I presented this hypothesis in my book TALISMAN: Sacred Cities, Secret Faith (Penguin Books, 2004, pp. 204-209). Later in 2012, the Italian astronomer Giulio Magli of Milano Politecnico and his colleague Dr. Luisa Ferro, an architect from the same polytechnic, have published a peered reviewed article which confirmed this theory (G. Magli and L. Ferro “The Astronomical Orientation of the Urban Plan of Alexandria”, Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Volume 31, Issue 4, November 2012, Pages: 381–389). The Oxford Journal of Archaeology is publishing in its next issue, Volume 32.2, the following text by Magli and Ferro: “‘In the paper ‘The astronomical orientation of the urban plan of Alexandria’ we have applied rigorous archaeoastronomical and archaeological arguments to show that the Alexandria main axis was deliberately oriented to the sun rising on the day of Alexander’s birth and to the king’s star Regulus. After publication we have been informed that a similar solar orientation of the Alexandria main axis also related to Alexander’s birth had already been proposed in 2004 in the book ‘Talisman:Sacred Cities, Secret Faith’ by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock (Penguin Books, London 2004), whose priority in elaborating this idea is therefore here acknowledged.”]